L'art du débatAuteurs

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Machiavelli

1469−1527

Machiavelli is born in 1469. Machiavelli is an Italian scholar who lived in Florence in the Medicis' time. His most famous work is The Prince (1550), a political portrait of Lorenzo di Medici in which he advises rulers how to govern efficiently. He insists they should never come across as unfair and be hated by their people, because it would discredit them and their authority.

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Queen Elizabeth I

1533–1603

Queen Elizabeth I is born in 1533. She is the daughter of Henry VIII Tudor's and Anne Boleyn, she ruled over England from 1558 and until her death. She is remembered as one of the most powerful and charismatic of English monarchs. Elizabeth was called the Virgin Queen, because she never married and had children. She is the last monarch of the glorious Tudor dynasty.

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Winston Churchill

1874−1965

Winston Churchill is born in 1874. He is a British statesman and aristocrat who served as Prime Minister during the Second World War. He is also known as a talented writer and painter, and was awarded the Nobel Prize of Literature in 1953.

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John Fitzgerald Kennedy

1917−1963

John Fitzgerald Kennedy is born in 1917. He became the 35th President of the United States in 1961 and served until 1963, when he was assassinated in Dallas. He remained famous for his commitment against the soviet regime during the Cold War, thanks to his 1961 "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech delivered in front of the wall that divided the German city.

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Harper Lee

1926−2016

Harper Lee is born in 1926. She is an American novelist, close to Truman Capote, who wrote To Kill a Mocking Bird. The best-selling anti-racist novel won the Pulitzer Prize in 1961 and a sequel entitled Go Set a Watchman was released in 2015, shortly before her death.

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Martin Luther King 

1929−1968

Martin Luther King is a black reverend, born in 1929. He committed himself to the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s, advocating peaceful activism to further the cause. His "I have a dream" speech is his most famous one, symbolically delivered in front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. in 1963. He was murdered in 1968.

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Barbara Kruger

1945-...

Barbara Kruger is born in 1945. She is a committed American conceptual artist who specialises in photomontages subverting the deceitful advertising language of the consumer and macho society.

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Martin McDonagh

1970-...

Martin McDonagh is born in 1970. He is a British playwright, screenwriter and film director influenced by Lynch and Beckett. His movie Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri received three BAFTA Awards in 2018.

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Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

1977-...

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie is a Nigerian novelist, born in 1977, who was educated in the United States, where she lives half of the year. She likes making fun at all stereotypes to debunk racism and prejudices both in Africa and America. Her most famous books to date are The Purple Hibiscus (2003) and Americanah (2013).