Reading and technologyQuestions sur documents types bac

Document 1

Readers absorb less on Kindles than on paper, study finds.

Alison Flood, The Guardian, 19 August 2014

[…] A new study which found that readers using a Kindle were "significantly" worse than paperback readers at recalling when events occurred in a mystery story is part of major new Europe-wide research looking at the impact of digitization on the reading experience.
The study, presented in Italy at a conference last month and set to be published as a paper, gave 50 readers the same short story by Elizabeth George to read. Half read the 28-page story on a Kindle, and half the paperback, with readers then tested on aspects of the story including objects, characters and settings.
Anne Mangen of Norway's Stavanger University, a lead researcher on the study: "The Kindle readers performed significantly worse on the plot reconstruction measure, i.e., when they were asked to place 14 events in the correct order." The researchers suggest that "the haptic and tactile feedback of a Kindle does not provide the same support for mental reconstruction of a story as a print pocket book does."
"When you read on paper you can sense with your fingers a pile of pages on the left growing, and shrinking on the right," said Mangen. "You have the tactile sense of progress, in addition to the visual … The differences for Kindle readers might have something to do with the fact that the fixity of a text on paper, and this very gradual unfolding of paper as you progress through a story, is some kind of sensory offload1, supporting the visual sense of progress when you're reading. Perhaps this somehow aids the reader, providing more fixity and solidity to the reader's sense of unfolding and progress of the text, and hence the story."
She is now chairing2 a new European research network doing empirical research on the effects of digitization on text reading. The network says that "research shows that the amount of time spent reading long-form texts is in decline, and due to digitization, reading is becoming more intermittent and fragmented", with "empirical evidence indicating that screen devices might negatively impact cognitive and emotional aspects of reading". They hope their work will improve scientific understanding of the implications of digitization, thus helping to cope with its impact.
“We need to provide research and evidence-based knowledge to publishers on what kind of devices (iPad, Kindle, print) should be used for what kind of content, what kinds of texts are likely to be less hampered3 by being read digitally, and which might require the support of paper," said Mangen. "I'm thinking it might make a difference if a novel is a page-turner or light read, when you don't necessarily have to pay attention to every word, compared to a 500-page, more complex literary novel, something like Ulysses, which is challenging reading that really requires sustained focus. That will be very interesting to explore."
The Elizabeth George study included only two experienced Kindle users, and she is keen to replicate it using a greater proportion of Kindle regulars. But she warned against assuming that the "digital natives" of today would perform better. "I don't think we should assume it is all to do with habits, and base decisions to replace print textbooks with iPads, for instance, on such assumptions. Studies with students, for instance, have shown that they often prefer to read on paper," she said.

1 Offload: relief
2 Chairing: directing
3 Hampered: blocked

Document 2

And yet the books

Czeslaw Milosz (1911 − 2004)

And yet the books will be there on the shelves, separate beings,
That appeared once, still wet
As shining chestnuts under a tree in autumn,
And, touched, coddled1, began to live
In spite of fires on the horizon, castles blown up,
Tribes on the march, planets in motion.
"We are," they said, even as their pages
Were being torn out, or a buzzing flame
Licked away their letters. So much more durable
Than we are, whose frail warmth
Cools down with memory, disperses, perishes.
I imagine the earth when I am no more:
Nothing happens, no loss, it's still a strange pageant2
Women's dresses, dewy lilacs, a song in the valley.
Yet the books will be there on the shelves, well born,
Derived from people, but also from radiance, height.

1 Coddled: protected
2 Pageant: procession

Czeslaw Milosz: poet born in Poland in 1911, he emigrated to the USA in 1960 and became an American citizen in 1970. He wrote literary works in many languages, including English. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1980.

Explain what the research is about.

Explain what participants in the study had to do.

Read paragraphs 6 and 7, from "She is now chairing …" to "… interesting to explore."

True or false?

"People are reading more and more novels today."

Read paragraphs 6 and 7, from "She is now chairing …" to "… interesting to explore."

True or false?

"Computers have made reading less efficient."

Read paragraphs 6 and 7, from "She is now chairing …" to "… interesting to explore."

True or false?

"Researchers are now interested in testing the link between types of text and types of media."

Read paragraphs 6 and 7, from "She is now chairing …" to "… interesting to explore."

True or false?

"Anne Mangen believes that we should read all kinds of novels on screen."

According to the text, do all young people prefer digital books?

What is the main theme of the poem?

Match the following phrases with the corresponding lines of the poem.

  • The destruction of books
  • The fragility of human life
  • Books are spiritual monuments to human genius
  • The birth of the book
  • Life continuing after the poet's death
  • Agitation and revolution
Lines Phrases
2−4
5−6
7−8
9−11
12−14
15−15

Explain what the following personal pronouns refer to:

  • "we" (line 7)
  • "they" (line 7)
  • "we" (line 10)
  • "I" (line 12)

The poet makes a contrast between the nature of books and people. Explain this contrast.

Describe and compare the way the two texts present the role of books in people's lives.